Systems Approach Model
DuPont Sustainable Solutions uses an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Approach to develop training materials. A systems approach allows for continual feedback and adjustment to the creation of instructional materials. It is a scientifically derived methodology that incorporates the research and theories of cognitive and behavioral psychology. The basic concept of applying a systems approach to instructional development is that once proficiency can be defined in measurable terms then these skills can be taught and post-training proficiency can be measured in specific areas. The ISD model has been successfully used for several years in the design and development of training materials for commercial, military and industrial applications. The model includes five phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE).
The ISD approach provides sound decision-making to identify the who-what-when-where-why of training; provides an orderly process of gathering and analyzing performance requirements; and insures that training and support materials are developed with maximum efficiency and effectiveness.
Instructional Design and Adult Learning
The instructional design process involves knowing how the content must be taught and how to include motivational elements to keep the learner cognitively and emotionally engaged. The study of educational and cognitive psychology is a fundamental requirement of instructional designers.
Our instructional design strategy meets and attends to the requirements and principles of adult learning:
- Adults need to know why they need to know.
- Adults need to learn experientially. Let them practice something.
- Adults approach learning as problem solving and must verify their new competencies at solving these problems.
- Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value. It must be relevant.
- Adults need to integrate new ideas with what they already know.
The design, development and delivery of effective training materials involve a partnership among many team players. This team effort is comprised of competencies and application skills in writing, interviewing, analyzing, graphics, computer applications, human learning knowledge, motivational techniques, formative and summative evaluation, marketing, human relations skills and project management. Dedicated subject matter experts take ownership of the training content. The development of training materials is a team exercise because no one person has expertise in all these competencies.
When the training is instructor-led, the partnership continues with give and take between leader and learner. Sharing of common experiences reinforces the ways we learn, through role modeling, good and bad examples, comparison with others’ experiences, and applying past experiences to current situations. When the training is delivered in a self-paced or individualized setting, it is designed to capture elements of those features, using the instructional development strategies.
Instructional Design Fundamentals
In creating instructional training materials we adhere to primary elements of adult motivation (inclusion, attitude, meaningfulness, and competence) and a nine-step process concerning the mental conditions for learning, called the events of instruction.
As adult learning theory suggests, adult training materials should include interactivity and the opportunity to learn experientially. Interactivity stimulates a learner’s mind to do those things that improve his ability and readiness to perform effectively. Learners see advantages of making mistakes and learn from them in the privacy and safety of a training setting, as opposed to the real world. To accomplish this we design activities that attract learners to use them and we suggest ways for the training leader to be a better facilitator.
There is structure to our training programs; learners should never feel that their time is being wasted. Learners build on current knowledge, skills and abilities by integrating new ideas with what they already know. Our training products are developed using compelling video, animation, audio, photos, archival footage and pictures, on-screen text, and graphics.
Opportunities for the learner to practice and get corrective feedback on performance are included in all training programs. Feedback is critical to the learning process as there can be no learning without knowledge of personal performance results. Exercises and questions used to assess student understanding and knowledge may be written at the concept level, using previously un-encountered examples.